Stone setting is one of the essential stages of jewelry making, in which gemstones are attached in a metal casting. The main objective of stone setting is to hold a gemstone securely as well as to enhance the brilliance of a gemstone by showing its cut, clarity and color. Jewelry manufacturers use numerous methods to set a gemstone into a jewelry item, which generally is based on gemstone's cut and proportion. Some of these methods and techniques are accepted and appreciated worldwide, which are described as under:
Prong setting, also known as claw setting, is the most common and popular method of setting stones into jewelry. It is the easiest as well as least expensive method of setting a gemstone. Also it allows optimal amount of light to pass through the gemstone, showing the gemstone at its maximum brilliance. This setting style is used for all types of jewelry items and mostly for solitaire engagement and bridal rings.
This setting often has 3, 4 or 6 small evenly spaced metal claws or prongs that are bent over the girdle to securely hold the gemstone in a piece of jewelry. These claws and prongs are similar in shape and size and attached to the central base part, known as the head or basket, of a piece of jewelry. These heads or baskets are available in various shapes and sizes depending on stone's shape and size. Common shapes of heads or baskets used in stone setting include round, emerald cut, princess cut, oval, marquise cut, pear shaped and trilliant cut. Each claw or prong extends upward and outward from the head and arching over the gemstone to form a secure and enduring grip. Prongs with platinum metal is considered very strong as platinum is a very dense and solid metal and its thin wires are sufficient to hold the gemstone securely in its place whereas gold prongs with sufficient alloys also give a strong grip.
The visible part of prongs can be shaped decoratively in many styles but more often rounded style is used to avoid snagging the threads of clothes or catching other objects and causing damage to either the objects or the prongs. This setting is also found in a few variations like v-prong and common prong. V-prong setting is similar to the prong setting except it uses prongs which, when viewed from top, appear to be curved into a V-shape. Common prong setting is also a modified version of a prong setting, where a prong is divided on the top to hold two nearby gemstones.
Bezel setting is one of the oldest stone setting techniques and still very popular for certain benefits. Bezel is a thin metal strip, which is soldered with head that wraps around a gem to hold it in place. Bezel setting requires a proper balance in all the angles. It provides a very secure grip as well as protects gemstone's edges, the girdle and the pavilion from scratches and chips. This setting can be used for any type of stone although mostly used for the fragile gemstones such as opal.
If the bezel setting does not surround the whole girdle of a gemstone and splits into two or more sections, covering just part of the gemstone, then this setting is known as half bezel or semi bezel. Bezel setting is suitable for people with active lifestyles and it is considered the best for men because this setting method looks masculine. Bezel setting is generally used for all the types of jewelry items like earrings, necklaces, bracelets and rings.
Bezel setting is suitable for people with active lifestyles and it is considered the best for men because this setting method looks masculine. Bezel setting is generally used for all the types of jewelry items like earrings, necklaces, bracelets and rings.
Channel setting is a setting technique in which gemstones are settled side-by-side as their girdles are held in between two parallel tracks on each metal wall. This setting gives impression of floating stones in the jewelry item and produces maximum amount of light as no metal appears in-between the gemstones. Structure of channel setting is very similar with English language letter 'U' in shape with two sidewalls and a bottom. A track is available on each side of the inner metal wall to contain gemstone girdle.
Channel setting protects the gemstones exceptionally well as none of the stone's edges are exposed, and so that they are safe from hard knocks or general wear and tear. This setting is best suitable for diamonds with round, princess, emerald, oval, square, and baguette cuts and often used in jewelry items like eternity bands, rings and especially in tennis bracelets.
A variation in channel setting, in which thin metal bars are exposed in-between the gemstones, is known as bar setting. Bar setting gives a different visual effect than the channel setting.
The word pave (pronounced as 'pa vay') came from the French word 'Pavé' means pavement. Pave setting is a setting method in which the surface of a jewelry item appears to be covered with tiny diamonds. These same sized tiny diamonds are placed in small holes that have been drilled out on the surface of a jewelry item. Generally stones are positioned close together in a honeycomb pattern. Like the prong setting, pave setting also has small handmade claws, triangular in shape, which hold the stones low and very close so that they produce a carpet of brilliance across the entire surface of a jewelry item.
The use of multiple stones in pave setting forms an illusion of a bigger jewelry. Usually this setting is combined and presented with other stone settings to add more beauty and effect. This setting gives best results with diamonds and white gold.
Tension setting is a relatively new type of setting in which metal pressure is used to hold a stone. In this setting, metal is spread apart and the girdle of the stone is settled into small grooves in the inner surface of the metal. Tension setting requires strong metals to create sufficient tension and pressure to hold a stone firmly and platinum is often used for this purpose. Also this setting is appropriate only for very hard gemstones like diamond, sapphire, ruby, etc with hardness 9 to 10 on Mohs hardness scale.
Flush setting, also known as burnish setting, is a reasonably recent method of setting and similar to bead setting. In this setting, stones are placed in holes that have been drilled out on the surface of a jewelry item. For this purpose, a seat is prepared on the metal surface, by using a standard setting bur, to place a stone. The diameter and the depth of the seat should be similar or slightly smaller to stone's diameter and depth. And after that stone is placed in the seat and a burnisher is used to rub the metal down and over the edge of the stone. After fitting the stone, its tightness should be checked properly and there should not be any movement in the stone. This setting provides safety to the stone because stone is positioned either below or equivalent to metal surface.
In bead setting, stones are placed in holes that have been drilled out on the surface of a jewelry item. For this purpose, a seat is prepared on the metal surface, by using a standard setting bur, to place the stone. Once the stone is positioned in the seat, an engraving tool is used to raise the beads of metal from the surrounding surface to hold a stone in place. These prongs are then rounded and pushed over the edge of the stone with a beading tool. Although this method is not used much these days but it was very common in the 20th century.
Invisible setting is a new and improved setting method that is considered as one of the most difficult setting methods. In this setting, the stones are positioned in such a manner so that metal is not visible from in-between stones that ultimately show appearance of uninterrupted and continuous surface. In this setting, stones are grooved just below the girdle and then those grooved stones are slid onto metal tracks to hold them in place.
This setting is appropriate only for multi-stone arrangement that usually attached in multiple rows. It looks similar to pave setting but gives better look and more brilliance, since no claws obstruct the light's entry. Usually invisible setting is best suited with square princess, emerald, baguette, and trillion cut diamonds and gemstones because the straight edges can be positioned very close to each other without leaving any space in-between.
Cluster setting produces a different and unusual look for jewelry items. In this setting, many small stones are mounted together in a group around a larger sized central stone. Generally cluster setting exhibits flower shaped designs in a multi layered circular form, which is preferred by women in their rings.
Finishing is the process in which surface of a piece is cleaned or polished or textured. Finishing is the final step of jewelry manufacturing process and usually all jewelry items require finishing. Finishing is very essential part of a jewelry manufacturing process as it gives beauty and brilliance to a jewelry piece. Finishing is achieved under various stages, which are described as under:
Metal Finishing covers any operation or activity that alters the surface of a metal piece to achieve a certain property or look. Metal finishing is preformed after a metal cast has been formed. Metal finishing covers many processes like cleaning, soldering, plating, texturing etc. These processes are described as under:
Cleaning of metal casting refers to all operations and activities that are performed to remove sand, scale and / or excess metal from the casting. In jewelry making, cleaning is a continuous process used at various stages. Casting comes for cleaning either directly from separated mold or after improvement by welding, soldering or other procedures. Burned-on sand and scale are removed to improve the surface appearance of the casting whereas excess metal, in the form of fins, wires, parting line fins and gates, is also removed. Cleaning of metal casting can be done by many ways:
Pickling is a process in which chemicals are used to remove oxide and carbon deposits from metal to obtain a clean surface. This process will also remove all of the fire stain and oxidation caused by the soldering. In this process, a metal piece is submerged in a heated acid solution, usually acetic, citric or nitric acid. The acid solution is then removed by rinsing the metal piece in cool water as well as in limewater to neutralize any remaining acid. But due to the environmental reasons, shot blasting has largely replaced pickling.
Sandblasting is a general term used for the process of cleaning, smoothing or etching a hard surface by forcing very fine bits of solid material across that surface at high speeds. Sandblasting method gives batter finish than the finish achieved by using sandpaper. In Sandblasting method, sand is the most commonly used material but sometimes other relatively uniform particles like synthetic beads, bits of coconut shell etc are also used. Sandblasting as a cleaning and smoothing method is widely used where small bits of abrasive launched at the metal or other surfaces at a high velocity so that all dirt, imperfections are knocked loose and can then be easily washed off. Whereas sandblasting as an etching method is also very popular and usually applied onto crystal or glass. In etching process, abrasive is blasted at the crystal or glass lightly to turn it semi-opaque and this semi-opaque effect is used to produce words or images on that crystal or glass.
Steam cleaning refers to cleaning of metal casting through steam and it is suitable for removing oily or greasy residue.
Soap water cleaning refers to cleaning of metal casting by using mild soap detergent in water.
Supercritical fluid cleaning refers to cleaning of metal casting with small openings or complex design. This cleaning process is used mainly on liquid contaminants like petroleum, silicone, lubricants, waxes etc.
It refers to the cleaning of a metal piece by using ultrasonic cleaners. Ultrasonic cleaner is a machine which uses a fluid that is vibrated at 20,000 cycles per second. When the vibration speed rises above the ultrasonic frequency level, bubbles explode and generate strong power, cleaning the surfaces and cavities of hard-to-clean metal pieces. This cleaning does not scratch the surface or harm metal pieces.
Metal polishing is the process of rubbing a metal piece to make it smooth and shiny as well as reduce the appearance of flaws.
Tumbling is the process used to get shine and brightness in a metal piece. This process primarily uses steel shots and does not remove any metal in the form of fins or gates from the metal piece.
Both bombing and stripping techniques are used to brighten metal pieces primarily by way of cyanide and water baths. However, bombing removes metal and brightens the entire piece evenly but stripping tends to remove more metal from the high points such as prongs.
Buffing refers to the use of grease compound in combination with wheels to produce very smooth polished surface. It is the final step in the professional finishing process.
A Florentine finish is a crosshatched decorative technique engraved into the surface of a precious metal. It is usually applied by a hand tool and consist a series of parallel lines engraved in two directions perpendicular to each other. This finish reduces the reflectivity of metal and the lines are often coarser and more deeply incised than the brushed or matte finish methods.
A hammered finish is a texture applied to the surface of a metal piece with a hammer to give it a dimpled look. A hammered texture gives impression of a series of small depressions in the metal. This finish is varied from light to deep hammering texture and usually increases the size of the metal piece.
A high polish finish is super shiny and smooth polish applied to a metal surface that gives a highly reflective and mirror-like finish.
Satin finish is a texture of a metal surface that is in between matte finish and a brilliant one. It is a series of tiny parallel lines scratched onto a metal surface with a wire brush or polishing tool to produce texture. Satin finish is achieved by various means and methods like sandblasting, wire brushing or chemically altering a shiny metallic surface. This finish gives impression of a soft, pearl-like luster instead of a bright polish.
A matte finish, also known as a brushed finish, is a texture applied to metal surface, which gives a dull and non-reflective finish. Matte finish is achieved either by a chemical process or by using an abrasive material to scratch the top layers of the piece.